【December 2019 No.405】Regional Meeting Addresses Impact of Empires and Mission Responses

The Taiwan Ecumenical Forum for Justice and Peace (TEF) was constituted and inaugurated by the Presbyterian Church in Taiwan (PCT), partner churches, and ecumenical organizations to work with the PCT on its mission concerns related to the transitional justice and internal isolation of Taiwan. In order to deepen solidarity in northeast Asia as well as to provide and to clarify the issues involved, the TEF Steering Group has highlighted the nature of empires and its impact on Taiwan.

 

The Northeast Asia Regional Meeting on the Impact of Empires and Mission Responses is a small group of experts from northeast Asia (namely South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan) whose aim is to discern the nature of international conflicts and national oppressive forces and to formulate common mission strategies and cooperation. This year the group met Oct. 11-14 in Shinjuku, Tokyo in the Kyodan Conference Room and the TKP Star Rental Conference Room. The 13 attendees were from Taiwan [6], the Presbyterian Church in the Republic of Korea (PROK) [3], Hong Kong [1], and the Kyodan [3]. The following speakers addressed the impact of empires and mission responses to that: Rev. Toru Akiyama (Kyodan), Rev. Dr. Jae Chon Lee (PROK), Mr. Ljavakaw Tjaljimaraw (PCT), and a professor from Hong Kong.

 

Unfortunately, as Typhoon Hagibis hit Tokyo Saturday evening, Oct. 12, the conference schedule was shortened. On Sunday morning, participants joined the worship service at Waseda Church, which is adjacent to the Kyodan office. One-eighth of the population of Shinjuku Ward in Tokyo is from overseas. PROK representatives were so glad to meet their church members at Waseda Church. A public meeting was scheduled to be held at Ephphatha Church in Shinjuku, Kameoka Ken, pastor of its Church introduced its history. It was a significant time for us to learn about the local church.

—Kato Makoto, executive secretary

【December 2019 No.405】Connecting with the Worldwide Church A Shinto no Tomo (Believer’s Friend) special series

Asking a Missionary to Japan

The editorial staff of Shinto no Tomo asked this missionary, who had been

sent to Japan and ministered for almost 40 years, about how he viewed

the Japanese Church and what issues he sees that need attention.

 

A Church where Almost Everyone can Feel at Home

 

by Timothy D. Boyle, retired missionary

United Methodist Church and Presbyterian Church USA

During the 1960s, there was a growing recognition in the US of the importance of relationships with Asia, and thus a program was begun at the East-West Center in Hawaii to invite college students entering their third year to study either Japanese or Chinese. I applied and was one of twelve to study Japanese for 15 months. I had no idea how learning Japanese would be useful to my future career, but the attraction of living in Hawaii for a year at government expense was certainly a big part of my motivation. The last three months of the program was a “homestay” in Tokyo, and this was my first time to come to Japan.

 

I later came back in 1971 as a short-term missionary with the United Methodist Church and was assigned to Sapporo in Hokkaido. I had a great time interacting with other young people in Japan (eventually marrying one of them) and returned to the US in 1974 to study theology and become a pastor. My wife and I returned to Japan in 1982 as regular missionaries with the Kyodan and served until retirement in 2016.

 

During the first term of service back in Japan, I served as the pastor of Shintoku Church in Hokkaido, and after that, we transferred to the “international city” of Tsukuba as missionaries with the Ibaraki Subdistrict of Kanto District for 21 years. Scientists, researchers, students, and their families come to Tsukuba from many countries for extended periods, and so much of our work centered on meeting the needs of these people. I started Tsukuba International School to serve those with children and aimed to make their stay in Japan a more stable and fulfilling one, irrespective of religious background or lack thereof.

 

One other area of mission that stands out in my mind is that of helping with the ministry of Bethlehem Church of the Indonesian Minahasa Church in Oarai. As Kanto District was very active in helping to establish this work, I often went to that church to help, including preaching there numerous times. I even went to Indonesia to visit the Minahasa Church headquarters. The Kyodan, including many lay persons, played important roles in establishing and maintaining this ministry to Indonesians living and working in the area, and so it was with great joy that I heard that in November of 2018, the Kyodan and Minahasa Church signed a formal joint mission agreement that will facilitate further development of mutual ministry and fellowship.

 

Finding it Hard to Fit in

There is one thing I’ve often heard from Japanese students who have studied abroad and came to faith in overseas churches. And that is that when they come back to Japan, they often find it hard to fit in when they try to become part of Japanese churches. Like many foreign students coming to Japan, they find the atmosphere of Japanese churches to be rather dull and somber. I sometimes still help out at Kobe Union Church, which was the second church to be founded in Japan after it opened up to the outside world at the beginning of the Meiji Era. Services are conducted in English but are also translated into Japanese over earphones, and so in addition to people from many countries, there are many Japanese, having either spent time overseas or being interested in becoming more international, who participate in the lively service.

 

A number of these people have had little exposure to Christianity before, but they are interested in improving their English and experiencing the foreign atmosphere, and so they come. Some people might think that this is not the mission of the church, but having such a place where people can feel comfortable and be welcomed into a fellowship that can be used by God to draw them to himself is surely pleasing to God.

 

I am, of course, not saying that Japanese churches in general should become like North American churches that are lively, open communities, as Japan has its own culture. Having a certain amount of solemnity in worship is a worthy goal. But it is also important to recognize that many people desire a more casual atmosphere, and so there are things that can be done to try to accommodate this.

 

This desire certainly isn’t limited to students. While it is not true of all Japanese churches by any means, what I have seen in many of the Japanese churches I have visited is that there is something about them that creates difficulty for outsiders to enter in. It’s not that such people are not welcomed, but it’s difficult to go much beyond that. Churches with few members naturally develop strong ties with each other, which is a good thing. However, I think it is important to be on guard that these don’t become exclusive relationships. For instance, if members subconsciously think that someone should understand something, even if it is not explained, that may make things difficult for newcomers who don’t have the necessary background information.

 

While I did experience some minor difficulties in adapting to Japanese churches, the “preacher’s wife” had even more. We were both commissioned as missionaries, but Japanese Christians often didn’t really understand that. Likewise, church members often had expectations of the pastor’s wife that were vague and not clearly explained. When this was pointed out, they would say they understood, but we didn’t really see any improvement.

 

Making the Church a Welcoming Place for Everyone

In the future, Japan will experience more and more people coming from particularly other Asian countries to work in Japan. Whether they like it or not, Japanese churches will need to recognize that they have a mission to reach out to these people. So, how are they to do that? While it may be difficult for Japanese Christians to visit and directly learn from overseas churches, they can visit churches such as Kobe Union Church and see how they can incorporate useful elements of other cultures and traditions, while not denying their own, and through this make their own church into one that can serve all people.

 

世界の教会とつながる

『信徒の友』特集 10月号

来日宣教師に聞く

『信徒の友』編集部が日本に派遣され40年近く宣教のわざに携わってきた宣教師に、日本の教会についてどのように思うか、課題と感じるところは何かを聞いた。

 

誰もの居場所となる教会

ティモシー・ボイル

アメリカ・合同メソジスト教会引退宣教師

 1960年代アメリカにとってアジアとの関係が重要になりつつあり、ハワイの東西センターが全米の大学の2学年を修了した学生を対象に日本語もしくは中国語を学ばせるコースを開設した。私はそれに応募し、15カ月間の日本語コースで学ぶ12人に選ばれた。日本語を学ぶことが将来どんな役に立つかわからなかったが、国費で1年間ハワイで生活できるというのは大変な魅力だった。ハワイで日本語を1年間習得した後、東京で3カ月間のホームステイがあり、それが私の初来日となった。

その後1971年に合同メソジスト教会より日本に信徒宣教師として短期派遣され、札幌に赴任した。日本の若者と交流し大変楽しい時を過ごし(その中の一人と結婚することにもなり)、1974年にアメリカに戻り、神学を学んで牧師となった。妻と私は1982年に日本に戻り、2016年に引退するまで日本基督教団に遣わされた。

始めは北海道の新得教会の牧師として働き、次に妻と共に関東教区茨城地区の国際都市つくばへ宣教師として派遣され、そこで21年間働いた。つくばでは多くの国から科学者、研究者、学生やその家族が訪れ、長期滞在するため、そういった人々の世話をすることが多かった。つくばインターナショナルスクールの開設に関わり、宗教の違いや信仰のあるなしに関わらず、子どものいる外国人の快適で安定した日本滞在を手助けした。

茨城県のインドネシア・ミナハサ福音キリスト教会大洗ベツレヘム教会への協力活動も思い出深い。関東教区が積極的だったこともあり、私は何度も行き、よく説教もした。インドネシアのミナハサ教会本部も訪ねた。日本キリスト教団は多くの信徒とともに、大洗に在住・在勤するインドネシア人への宣教を確立・維持するために尽力したので、2018年に日本キリスト教団とミナハサ教会が宣教協約を締結し、今後も宣教協力と交流が進められることは大変うれしい。

 

なじみにくい日本の教会

 留学先で信仰をもつようになった日本人学生からよく聞く話がある。日本に帰って、日本の教会に通おうとするのだが、なじみにくいということだ。日本に来る多くの外国人学生もそうだが、日本の教会はまじめ過ぎて暗いと感じるのだ。今でも時々神戸ユニオン教会で説教をしているが、明治時代の始め、開国後2番目に建てられたこの教会では、礼拝は英語で行われ、イヤホンで日本語訳を聞くことができる。そのため多くの外国人だけでなく、外国滞在経験があったり、国際交流に興味のある日本人が多く訪れて、活気のある礼拝に参加している。

ほとんど教会経験がないが、英語力をつけたい、あるいは外国の雰囲気を経験したいと思って来る人たちもいる。それは教会の宣教活動とはいえないと言う人もいるかもしれないが、人々が心地よく感じ、気軽に交流できる場所があり、そこで神と出会える可能性があるならば、それは神に喜ばれる業ではないだろうか。

もちろん日本には固有の文化があり、教会がみな北アメリカの教会のように活気があって交流が盛んになるべきだというのではない。礼拝にある程度の厳粛さがあるというのは、それはそれで価値がある。しかし多くの人がもっと礼拝に出席しやすい雰囲気を求めていることも無視できない。そのような教会にするためにできることがあるはずだ。

このような気持ちは学生だけに限らない。日本のすべての教会がそうだというのでは断じてないが、私自身、多くの教会に外部の人間が入りにくいと感じる何かがあるように思う。新来会者を歓迎しないというのではない。迎え入れられたあと、それ以上の関係を築くことが難しいのだ。信徒の少ない教会は、自然と信徒同士が固いきずなで結ばれるようになる。それは良いことだが、それが排他的な関係にならないよう注意することが大切だ。例えば言葉にしなくてもわかってくれるはずだと教会員が無意識に思うようなことがあると、それを知らない新来会者は困った立場に置かれる。

私も日本の教会に適応するのに多少の苦労をしたが、「牧師夫人」はそれ以上の苦労があった。妻も私も共に同じ宣教師であるのに、日本のクリスチャンはなかなかそれを理解しようとしなかった。さらに、口には出さないが漠然とした「牧師夫人の役割」というものを教会員はよく期待した。それに対して反論すると「わかりました」と言われるが、改善されることはほとんどなかった。

すべての人を迎え入れる教会に

 今後さらに多くの外国人が、特に同じアジアの国の人々が日本に働きに来るだろう。彼らが好むと好まざるとに関わらず、日本の教会はこれらの人々に手を差し伸べるミッションを負っていくだろう。では、どうすればよいのか。日本のクリスチャンが外国の教会に行って直に学ぶことは難しいかもしれないが、神戸ユニオン教会のような教会を訪ねて、他の文化や伝統から役に立つ部分をさがすことはできる。そして教会の文化や伝統を大切にしながらそれらを取り入れていく方法を見つけることによって、すべての人に仕える教会へと変えてゆくことができるのではないだろうか。(今回KNLのために改めて書きおろした)

【December 2019 No.405】The Pirapo Church in Paraguay Dedicates A New Church Building

by Rev. Ehara Yukiko, Kyodan missionary

In May 2019, I arrived in Pirapo, a southern city in Paraguay, South America, to become a full-time pastor of the “Pirapo Free Methodist Church,” also known as the “Sakai Keishi Memorial Free Methodist Church.”

The church had virtually been vacant for forty years until 2015, when the Kyodan sent missionary, Rev. Chibana Sugako, as a full-time pastor. Her encounter with the church was dramatic: she met one of the congregants from the church, nothing to attribute this to other than a plan of God. Within the next four years, she purchased a piece of land and built a new church building there. I am her successor and was installed as the new, full-time pastor. On June 23rd, a new church building was dedicated with thirty-five Christians attending as witnesses from all over Paraguay and Brazil. The settlement of Japanese immigrants in Pirapo began on August 2nd, 1960.  Mr. Sakai Kotaro, a Christian employee of an NGO named JICA, the Japan International Cooperation Agency, along with his wife planted a church in Pirapo and started Sunday worship services.

 

Rev. Tsukamoto Minoru visited from Encarnacion Free Methodist Church to lead monthly worship services at Pirapo Church. Rev. Tsukamoto served many years in Paraguay, baptizing many Japanese immigrants. At one time, nearly twenty people attended at Pirapo Church.  Rev. Tsukamoto eventually left in the mid 80’s, and then pastors from various denominations ministered to the church. In the 90’s JICA withdrew from Paraguay. The church land had belonged to JICA, and the ownership was transferred from JICA to the city of Piparo. The church was first allowed to use the building, but in the end, had to leave. They borrowed another building, formerly a dormitory for an elementary school in the 23KM district, as their new church building. When Rev. Chibana first met them, there were only a few congregants. They were gathering on Sundays to listen to tapes of recorded sermons.

 

Currently we have five congregants attending the Sunday services. The small change in the population of Pirapo allows little renovation. Inviting residents to church is never easy if they have known each other for so many years. Many communal events also fall on Sundays. Congregants as communal members usually attend such events and miss out on Sunday services.

 

Among the three Japanese Free Methodist churches in Paraguay, the church in Asuncion, which is in the capital of Paraguay, has been preparing to incorporate these three churches as affiliates of the Brazil Free Methodist Church organization. The Pirapo Church is reluctant to become an affiliate. Instead, they are on the verge of taking a new step toward independence. The process of becoming an institutionalized as a religious corporation will be another challenge.

 

Yguazu is another city founded by Japanese immigrants with a small Christian population. Once they met for worship at a Christian family’s home, but the family returned to Japan, and they had not been able to meet since then. I visited them in September, and we held a worship service there. Riding a bus from Pirapo to Yguazu for over three hours, I finally arrived around noon. We had lunch together, followed by a worship service. We enjoyed our fellowship and tea. I stayed overnight, and we had dinner together. We hope to meet regularly for monthly worship services. For Christmas and Easter, they will be invited to Pirapo Church for a joint worship service with communion. Please keep the Pirapo Church in your prayers.(Tr. DB)

 

 2019年5月に、パラグアイのピラポ移住地のピラポ自由メソジスト教会に赴任しました。2015年に知花スガ子宣教師が神様のお導きによってこの教会の信徒と劇的な出会いをされ、40年間ほぼ無牧だった教会に常駐の牧師として遣わされました。知花牧師は4年の間に土地を購入して新会堂を建築されました。私はその後任として着任し、6月23日にパラグアイ各地とブラジルからの参列者35人を与えられて、喜びの献堂式を執り行いました。

 ピラポ移住地は1960年8月2日から入植が始まり、別の移住地から移ってきたJICA職員でキリスト教徒の酒井夫妻が教会を建てて礼拝を始めました。自由メソジスト教団からエンカルナシオン教会に派遣された塚本登牧師が、ピラポ教会で毎月礼拝を献げるようになりました。塚本牧師は長くパラグアイにいて多くの日本人移住者を授洗し、最盛期にはピラポ教会に20人近い信徒がいたそうです。1980年代半ばに塚本牧師が去った後、様々な教派の牧師が巡回して牧会しました。1990年代にJICAがパラグアイから撤退したとき、教会の土地はJICA所有で宗教団体に寄贈できず、ピラポ市に移譲されました。建物はそれまで通り使用可との約束でしたが、やがて使用が困難になって、23KM地区の旧小学校寄宿舎を借りて礼拝をするようになりました。知花先生が出会われたときには、教会員は数名でしたが、その方々は毎週日曜日に集まって、礼拝説教のテープを聞いていました。

 現在の礼拝出席者は5名です。ピラポ移住地は人口移動が少なく、人間関係も固定化しているため、これまで何十年も付き合ってきた人を急に教会に誘うことは大変難しい状況があります。また、日曜日に日本人会の行事があることも多く、つきあいがあるので教会員も参加します。

 パラグアイには自由メソジストの日系教会が3つあり、首都アスンシオンの日系自由メソジスト教会がブラジル自由メソジスト教団日系年会パラグアイ支部の法人化手続きをしています。しかしピラポ教会の信徒はブラジルの教会への所属に抵抗感があり、単立のプロテスタント教会として新しい一歩を踏み出そうとしています。そのための法人化手続きが今後の課題です。

 また、イグアス移住地にも信徒がおり、信徒の家の離れで礼拝を守っていましたが、10年以上前にこの方が帰国してからは場所もなく、集会もなくなりました。9月から私が行って礼拝を守ることにしました。ピラポからはバスで3時間以上かかるため、昼頃着いて一緒に食事をしてから礼拝を守り、お茶を飲みながら交わりをしました。その晩は宿泊したので夕食も一緒にしました。これから毎月礼拝を守る予定で、クリスマスやイースターにはピラポ教会で一緒に礼拝と聖餐をしたいと願っています。

 どうぞ覚えてお祈りください。(江原有輝子)

【December 2019 No.405】Baikwa Gakuen’s Two Founders: Sawayama Paul and Naruse Jinzo

The history of Baikwa Gakuen began when a young man met Daniel Crosby Greene, a missionary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, in Kobe. His name was Sawayama Umanoshin. He was born in Yoshiki, Choshu Domain (the present Yamaguchi Prefecture) in 1852. As the son of a low-ranking samurai family, he learned classical Chinese literature and martial arts at Kenshokan, the local school.

 

When he was 14 years old, the Second Choshu War (a civil war before the 1868 Meiji Restoration of the imperial system) broke out.  Sawayama took to the field as a drummer of the Yoshiki Unit of the Choshu Army, where he witnessed his forces gaining an overwhelming victory with modern Western weapons. Then he decided to begin a long career in Western studies. In 1870, two years after the Meiji Restoration, Sawayama came to Kobe to seek support from former Yoshiki Unit Captain Utsumi Tadakatsu, then deputy-governor of Hyogo Prefecture. Based on his own experiences of visiting Western countries, Utsumi urged Sawayama to learn English so that he could complete his Western studies. Sawayama was introduced to D. C. Greene, who was engaged in missionary work in Kobe.

 

While Sawayama was regularly coming to Greene’s house and attending home worship, Greene recognized his innate talent and spiritual strength. Greene persuaded him to pursue further study in the United States. He introduced Sawayama to his brother Samuel Greene who lived in Evanston, Illinois, and asked Samuel if Sawayama could attend a preparatory course at Northwestern University while living at Samuel’s house. So Sawayama left for the United States in 1872.

 

Sawayama Paul Decides to do Mission Work in Japan

Living with the Greenes, Sawayama attended church and entered into the Christian faith, being baptized by Pastor Edward N. Packard at First Congregational Church of Evanston. In 1875 Horace Hall Leavitt, a missionary in Japan who had temporally come back to the US, met Sawayama. He exhorted Sawayama to begin his mission in Japan. Sawayama decided to become an evangelist in his own country and spent the rest of his time in Illinois reading Christian writings. He also changed his name to Paul, after Apostle Paul in the Bible.

 

In the summer of 1876, Sawayama went back to Japan and started working at Matsumura Dispensary in Osaka as an interpreter. The dispensary was founded by A. H. Adams, a medical missionary of Umemoto-cho Church, along with a Japanese medical doctor and a pharmacist who were also fervent Christians. It was located at the corner of Shinsaibashi Street and Koraibashi Street as a place of medical care and missionary activity. Umemoto-cho Church (now Osaka Church) was established as the first Congregational church in Osaka. One year later, in 1877, the Japanese staff and believers of Matsumura Dispensary established Naniwa Church as a self-supporting congregation. There Sawayama was ordained by Joseph Neesima (Niijima Jo) and became the first pastor of the church.

 

In October 1877, the plan to establish a girls’ school emerged among the people involved in the two churches. In January 1878, Osaka Prefecture officially permitted the founding of the school, and it was named Baikwa Girls’ School after the two churches (Umemoto and Naniwa, which mean plum-root and wave-blossom respectively). So baikwa is the combination of two Chinese characters taken from the names of the two churches: bai-ume (plum) and ka-hana (blossom).

 

Notably, Baikwa Girls’ School was established as a self-supporting institution by Japanese Christians as well as by Naniwa Church. The school started with two Japanese teachers (Naruse Jinzo and Koizumi Atsushi), two teachers from the US (H. H. Leavitt, a missionary, and Miss Francis Stevens), and 15 students. Sawayama advocated the Christian spirit to be the founding spirit of Baikwa and showed his leadership as one of the executive board members.

 

In 1879, the school succeeded admirably in its educational reform with the arrival of Miss Abby Maria Colby as a full-time missionary.  Colby graduated from Mount Holyoke Female Seminary and applied to become an American Board missionary after she had worked as a teacher. Baikwa Girls’ School’s curriculum was designed on the basis of Mount Holyoke’s to provide students with a well-rounded education in liberal arts. Under Colby’s guidance, the ideals of independence, thrift, patience, and service were put into practice. Both the teachers and the students studied hard. And thanks to the devoted efforts of many people, the school achieved a remarkable breakthrough.

 

Naruse Jinzo Facilitates the Founding of Baikwa

Naruse Jinzo, one of the founders of Baikwa Girls’ School, was younger than Sawayama by six years and was from the same town. He also studied at Kenshokan. After graduating from that school, he went to Yamaguchi Teacher Training School. While working at an elementary school as a teacher, his great dream was to educate students with new methods based on his own convictions. Fortunately, in the summer of 1877, Naruse met Sawayama, who had come back to visit his hometown. When Sawayama told Naruse that he had studied in the US and that he planned to establish a girls’ school in Osaka, the young man was deeply impressed.

 

Following Sawayama to Osaka, Naruse soon embraced Christianity and was baptized at Naniwa Church. The official decision to establish the school involved many responsibilities. He had to rent a building and draw up a set of school rules. He not only taught full-time but also performed miscellaneous tasks by himself, including preparation of educational materials and the necessary paperwork as well as management of the school building.

 

Thanks to his strenuous efforts, a proper school building was acquired one year later, and the number of the students gradually grew.  However, extensive building renovation resulted in a heavy load of debt. The school received a donation from a wealthy person in Nara Prefecture in order to pay its debts. Naruse, however, expressed resolute opposition to the receipt of this money because he was firmly dedicated to the principle of financial independence.

 

This triggered his resignation from Baikwa Girls’ School.  He decided instead devote himself to the work of evangelism. Before long, Naruse began mission work in Niigata, where he played a role in the establishment of a girls’ school. But the educational situation there was quite different from Osaka. Reportedly he persevered through hard times during this period.

 

Accepting the limits of his own competence, in 1890, he left for the United States to look for new possibilities in education. He studied Christianity, pedagogy, and sociology at Andover Theological College and Clark University. To learn as much as possible, he also visited various colleges, universities, and teacher training schools as well as churches, social institutions, and factories in which women were employed.

 

Upon his return to Japan in 1894, he came back to his old workplace as the principal of Baikwa Girls’ School. As a matter of course, Naruse actively adopted American ways of education for his school. Based on this successful experience in the girls’ school, he tried to establish an institution of higher education. However, it was quite difficult for him to change the school culture so drastically since it had been developing for 20 years. So he gave up the idea of establishing a women’s college at Baikwa.

 

In 1896 Naruse resigned from the girls’ school and began working to found a separate institution of higher education. In 1901 he finally established Japan Women’s College* in Tokyo with the support of many people, including some in political and business establishments. It goes without saying that the school was literally a pioneering women’s university of Japan. Sawayama’s fervent passion for educating girls came to fruition in Naruse, who then mobilized public opinion and opened a new avenue for women’s education in Japan. (Tr. TT)

—Yasuda Yukihide, Baikwa Gakuen Archives

___________________________________________

*Editorial note: Presently called Japan Women’s University.

 

梅花学園の2人の創設者 澤山保羅と成瀬仁蔵

 梅花学園の歴史は、山口県から神戸に出てきた一人の青年が、アメリカンボードのD.C.グリーン宣教師と出会ったことから始まります。その青年の名は澤山馬之進といい、1852年(江戸時代)に長州(山口県)吉敷の下級武士の家に生まれ、郷校「憲章館」で中国の古典や武道を学びました。1866年、澤山が14歳の時に、第二次長州戦争があり澤山は吉敷隊の鼓手として出陣し、その時に近代的装備を持つ長州軍が圧倒的な勝利を収めるのを目の当たりにしました。その時に澤山は洋学を学ぼうと決意します。明治維新が起こった2年後の1870年に、澤山は洋学を学ぶために、兵庫県副知事の内海忠勝(元吉敷隊隊長)を頼って神戸に出てきました。欧米を視察していた内海忠勝は、洋学を修めるためには英語の習得が必要として、神戸で宣教活動をしていたグリーン宣教師を紹介します。澤山がグリーン宣教師の自宅兼教会に通ううちに、グリーン宣教師は彼の非凡な素質と恵まれた精神力を見出し、アメリカでさらに勉学を深めることができるように澤山を説得します。イリノイ州エバンストンに住むグリーン宣教師の兄サミュエル・グリーンに澤山を紹介し、兄の家からノースウエスタン工科大学予科で勉強できるように手配し、澤山は1872年に渡米します。澤山はサミュエル・グリーンの家族と生活を共にして、教会に通ううちにキリスト教への信仰を深め、エバンストン第一教会でパッカード牧師により、受洗しています。 1875年に日本で宣教していたH.H.レビット宣教師が帰米して、澤山に出会い日本へのキリスト教布教を強く薦めます。澤山は日本伝道を決意し、残り1年の留学期間を聖書の学習にあて、名前を使徒パウロにちなんで「保羅」と改めました。1876年の夏に帰国し、大阪の松村診療所で通訳として働き始めます。松村診療所は、梅本町教会の宣教医アダムズが、梅本町教会の信者の日本人医師や薬剤師と共に心斎橋筋高麗橋通り角に開き、医療と伝道の場としました。梅本町教会(現大阪教会)は、大阪で最初に創立された会衆派教会です。その一年後に松村診療所の日本人スタッフや信者が中心となり自給独立の浪花教会を設立し、この教会で澤山は新島襄から按主礼を受けて初代牧師となります。1877年10月に梅本町教会と浪花教会の信者の間で女学校設立の話が持ち上がりました。1878年1月に梅花女学校(梅本町教会の梅と、浪花教会の花から名前をとった)が大阪府の許可を受け開校しました。特筆すべきは浪花教会と同じく日本人信者による自治独立の力で女学校が設立されたことです。成瀬仁蔵と小泉敦の2人の日本人教師、レビット宣教師とスティーブン女史の2人のアメリカ人教師、15人の生徒で発足しました。澤山はキリスト教主義を梅花建学の精神に掲げ、女学校の理事的立場でリーダーシップを発揮しました。発足の翌年(1879年)にコルビー宣教師を専任宣教師として迎えることにより、教育内容を飛躍的に向上することができました。コルビー宣教師はマウントホリヨークを卒業し教員生活を経て、アメリカンボードの宣教師募集に応募されたのです。梅花女学校の学科課程はマウントホリヨークを範とし、リベラルアーツの全人教育を実践しました。コルビー宣教師の指導により、独立、倹約、忍耐、奉仕などマウントホリヨークの精神が女学校に生かされました。教師も生徒も一生懸命に勉強し、多くの人々の献身的な努力により梅花女学校は発展してゆくことができました。

 梅花女学校創立に関わった成瀬仁蔵は、澤山保羅と同郷で、「憲章館」の6年年下の後輩でした。憲章館を卒業して山口県教員養成所へ進み、その後に小学校の教員をしていましたが、自己の信念に基づく新しい教育をしたいという夢を持っていました。1877年夏に郷里に戻っていた澤山と運命的な出会いをします。

 成瀬は、澤山から大阪で女学校を作るという構想があるということや、アメリカに留学した話を聞き感動します。澤山を追いかけて大阪に出て、キリスト教にもすぐに共感して洗礼を受けています。梅花女学校の設立が決定すると、すぐに校舎に使用する借家を探し出し、開校に必要な校則、諸規則を作成しました。専任の教師としてだけではなく、教材の準備や学校のすべての事務を引き受け、校舎の管理まで一人で行っていました。このような成瀬の奮闘のおかげで、1年後には専用の校舎を取得することができ、生徒も順調に集まるようになりました。ただ校舎を取得しても、改修が必要であり、多額の負債が残りました。

 その負債を解消するために、奈良の富豪から寄付を受けたのですが、自給自立精神を貫こうとしていた成瀬はそれを許すことができず女学校を辞職して、キリスト教の布教に専念することになります。新潟に布教に向かった時に、かの地で女学校の設立に関わることになるのですが、やはり大阪とは事情が違い大変な苦労をすることになります。自分の力の限界を感じた成瀬は、1890年に新しい教育の姿を求めて渡米します。アメリカではアンドーヴァー神学校・クラーク大学でキリスト教学、教育学、社会学を学び、各地の大学・カレッジ・師範学校を訪問し、同時に教会、社会施設、工場の女子労働などを視察して見聞を広めました。1894年に帰国し、その後すぐに梅花女学校で校長として復帰します。成瀬は留学で得たアメリカ流の教育を梅花女学校に取り入れ、さらに発展させることができました。成瀬は女学校での成功をもとにさらなる高等教育機関である女子大学の設立をめざそうとしました。しかし創立以来20年を経た女学校の体質を変えることは容易なことではありません。梅花女学校での女子大学設立を諦めた成瀬は1896年に女学校を辞し大学設立に奔走します。1901年に成瀬は政財界の有力者や多くの人々の援助を得て、女子総合大学の先駆け「日本女子大学校(現日本女子大学)」を東京で開校します。澤山から成瀬に受け継がれた篤い思いが社会を動かし、女子教育の新たな道が開かれたのです。(梅花学園資料室 安田行秀)

【December 2019 No.405】Presbyterian Church in Taiwan Heads Taize Meditation Tour

The Presbyterian Church in Taiwan led a Taize Meditation Tour from Aug. 23 to Sept. 5. The project was begun by Rev. Pan Chung-Chieh of Taichung University Student Center in PCT. This was the second year this event has been held, and this time, the Kyodan was also invited to participate to make it a joint program.

 

There were 16 PCT members, 7 Kyodan members, with each delegation having one person take the lead. The main part, Aug. 25-Sept. 1, involved taking part in an international gathering for meditation at the Taize Community, which is mainly for young adults from Europe who are18 to 35 years of age and transcends all religions, genders, and national boundaries. There were approximately 2,000 young adults who gathered from various places around the world.

 

The Taize community was created as an ecumenical Christian men’s monastery meeting in the small town of Taize in the Burgundy area of France by Brother Roger from Switzerland in 1940 and began as a place seeking to become a “sign of reconciliation” in a world divided and fighting. The monks (brothers), transcending differences in denominations, have a life of prayer and work together. Taize values prayer in the midst of silence; and the morning, noon, and evening prayers progress with long silences, prayer songs, and the reading of scripture. In addition to “deepening inner faith,” “solidarity with suffering persons” has been an important compass from its inception.

 

While there, in addition to the morning, noon, and evening prayers, time was spent in workshops (Bible study, environmental and social issues, art, etc.) and engaging in various tasks. On the first day, every person chooses a kind of work to do, such as cleaning toilets, distributing food and cleaning up afterwards, preparing worship, throwing out the trash, singing in the choir, etc. Those who are invited each week support the daily life of the corporate body. This time, the participants from Japan served in the choir and in meal preparation. Every day was plain and simple. It was a week in which participation in every task was directed toward prayer.

 

And during this period, in addition to young adult interchange between Taiwan and Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong and China, time was provided for sharing meals with the brothers and talking with them. Many of the young adults who participated this time had already taken part in the Kyodan’s expeditionary program or young adult work, and assumed leadership, so it was a program during which they could separate themselves from their busy lives to concentrate on building a relationship with God and to search their own hearts. (Tr. RT)

—Hironaka Yoshimi, staff

Commission of Ecumenical Ministries

 

 台湾基督長老教会(PCT)のテゼ黙想ツアーが8月23日から9月5日に行われた。PCT台中学生センターの潘忠杰牧師が始めた企画で、2回目の今年は教団も誘いを受け、合同のプログラムとして実現した。

 参加者はPCTが16名、教団が7名、内引率各1名であった。メインは8月25日から9月1日に、テゼ共同体で行われる18~35歳の青年たちのための国際的集いに参加し、黙想することで、ヨーロッパを中心に世界各地から、あらゆる宗教、性別、国家の枠を超えて約2000人の青年が集まった。 テゼ共同体は1940年、スイス出身のブラザー・ロジェによって、フランス・ブルゴーニュ地方の小さな村「テゼ」に創設された超教派のキリスト教男子修道会で、分裂や争いのある世界で、『見える和解のしるし』となることを目指して始まった。修道士(ブラザー)たちが、教派の違いを越えて、共に祈りと労働の生活をする。テゼは、深い沈黙の中での祈りを大切にし、朝昼晩の祈りは、長い沈黙、祈りの歌や聖書の朗読によって進められる。「内なる信仰を深めること」と同時に、「苦悩する人々との連帯」を創設からの大切な指針とする。

 滞在中は朝昼晩の祈りの他に、ワークショップ(聖書研究、環境・社会問題、芸術等)や、それぞれのワークをして過ごした。ワークは初日に全員が一つ選ぶ。内容はトイレ掃除、食事の配膳・片付け、礼拝準備、ゴミ捨て、聖歌隊等。その週に招かれた人で共同体の生活が維持される。今回日本の参加者は、聖歌隊と夕飯準備の奉仕をした。日々は単純素朴で、全ての営みが祈りに向かって生活する一週間であった。

 また期間中には台湾と日本の他に、韓国、香港、中国の青年との交流やブラザーと一緒に食事をとり、話をする時間も与えられた。今回の参加者はすでに教団海外派遣プログラムや青年活動に関わる青年が多く、リーダーシップをとる彼女、彼らが一度立ち止まって神様と関係を築くことに集中し、忙しさから離れて自分を見つめるプログラムであった。(世界宣教部職員 廣中佳実)